In Observance of Independence Day, our office will be closed Thursday July 4th and July 5th.
Have a safe Holiday !
In Observance of Independence Day, our office will be closed Thursday July 4th and July 5th.
Have a safe Holiday !
Wishing a Happy Father’s Day to the extraordinary dads who provide support, sacrifice and love every day for their families.
We’re thankful for these incredible men who truly make a house a home, filling our spaces with fond memories and laughter day in and day out. We celebrate dads everywhere today from all of us at NAMCOA.
The Federal Reserve today reiterated it plans to continue what it has been doing and said it would continue to do, much to the chagrin of market participants.
While the last Fed minutes showed more dovishness, actual actions that are indeed ‘dovish’ have yet to occur. Reducing expected rate increases from 3 to 2 in 2019 was widely interpreted as, ‘the Fed might stop raising rates’, for some reason. History shows us that the Fed telegraphs well in advance what it intends to do. Thanks to Alan Greenspan, this has been the case for more than 20 years now.
What has the Fed said it will do in 2019? Raise rates two more times and continue to drain liquidity from the system via its bond roll-off program. It is also expected that other nations’ central banks will also cease adding liquidity this year. China may not have gotten the memo though, as they just lower their Reserve Requirement Ratio by 1%, freeing up approximately $100 billion in bank liquidity. This was announced on Friday, January 4, but was not even mentioned in the Saturday Wall Street Journal!
Here is a picture of global liquidity for 2019. From adding more than any given year in 2017, to net withdrawal in 2019. Adjust your expectations accordingly.
They say its always darkest before the dawn, which seems appropriate as we meet the Winter Solstice today, at the lows of 2018.
There is a lot of commentary out there right now about hos investors are ‘worried’ about certain things like Brexit, slowing economies in China and Europe and if that slowing will seep into the U.S. All these areas of concern have been with us for most of the year. I have pointed out the Chinese credit impulse (slowing) more than a few times. Housing and auto sales have been slowing for months. The only difference is now there is a market decline and all these issues are being discussed. If the market had not been declining these issues would still be with us, only accompanied by the tag line: “Investors shrug at concerns in Europe”.
In past posts I have described the coming year over year comparisons, 2018 v 2019, regarding earnings and GDP growth. Every time I have mentioned that 2019 will look much worse than the stellar numbers put up in 2018, thanks largely in part to the one time cut in taxes. That gave markets a boost and it was hoped that business investment, and wages would go up as a result. Well it’s the end of 2018 and were still waiting.
The Federal Reserve gave a modest tip of the hat towards global economic concerns by reducing its estimate of rate increases in 2019 from 3 to 2. There were even rumors that the Fed would skip raising its rate on December 19th and guide to 0 rate increases in 2019. The Fed NEVER overtly bows to market or political pressures outside of an official recession or panic. The Fed is in the process (as usual) of raising rates into the beginning of a recession. Besides the yield curve, there are several other indicators that make recession in 2019 likely. These indicators have been leaning this way for several months, and finally have tipped far enough that the markets are now concerned and discounting this likelihood.
As this is likely the beginning of a bear market (average -33% post WW2 era), we should expect large rapid moves, both down AND up in the markets. During the bull market, a 2-4% pullback was common and quickly bought. Today we see 2-4% intraday moves that continue to fall to hold support. I expect several more percentage points south before a significant rally in stocks in the first few months of the year. This will be an opportune time to reassess one’s risk tolerance and goals over the next 1-3 years, as well as make sure that one’s portfolio is properly diversified across asset classes. When stocks go down there are often other asset classes that are performing better, the core idea behind diversification.
2018 is sizing up to be a very volatile year. Including today, there have been 11 2% down days this year. There were 0 in 2017, 0 in 2006, and 11 in 2007.
The major indices are currently holding their lows from late October and Thanksgiving week, approximately 2625 on the SP500. The interim highs were just over 2800, a 6% swing.
The big question of the quarter is if the highs or lows will break first. Volume today is extremely heavy, so if the markets can close in the top half of todays range, that should bode well for the next few days.
Looking at the big picture, the 200- and 100- day moving averages are flat, the 50 day is sloping downward. We see the longer term trend is flat while the short term trend is down. The 50 day and 200 day are at the same level and the 100 day is near 2815. The averages are clustered together near current prices while the markets intraday are given to large swings in both directions.
Concurrent news topics are the recent good news item of a 90- day trade war truce, and the bad news topics are the problems with Brexit, and the arrest of the vice-chairperson of Huawei, China’s largest cell phone maker. She is a Party member, daughter of the founder who is also a Party member and has close ties to China’s military. Maybe not the best person to arrest if one is trying to negotiate a Trade Truce.
My forecast from late 2017 was for large swings in market prices and we have certainly seen this play out. When compared to past market tops, 2001 and 2007, one can plainly see plus and minus 10% moves as the market tops out then finally breaks down. Its my opinion that a bear market has likely started, and we have a few opportunities to sell at “high” prices, and get positioned for 2019.
Fundamentally while employment and earnings are good, these are backwards looking indicators. These are the results of a good economy, not indicators it will persist. Housing and autos are slowing; defensive stocks are outperforming growth stocks, and forecasts for 2019 earnings range from 0% to 8%, a far cry from 2018’s +20% earnings growth rate.
So, what to do? Is it more difficult to ‘sell high’ or ‘buy low’? One is fraught with fears of missing out, the other fears of further declines. Selling into market strength and perceived ‘resolutions’ to our economic headwinds might be the best bet. Especially considering the chart below, where in 2019 the global Central Banks will be withdrawing liquidity until further notice, while the Fed insists on raising rates further.
Please note our office will be closed on Thursday, November 22 and Friday, November 23, 2018 in observance of the Thanksgiving holiday. Normal operating hours will resume on Monday, November 26, 2018.
Feel free to contact me should you have any questions or if you have specific needs that require special attention. You can reach me at 239-287-3789 or via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Have a safe and happy holiday!
Earnings for companies in the S&P500 grew by more than 20% year over year during the second quarter, repeating first quarter’s Tax Reform-boosted performance. Companies that beat estimates were rewarded, and companies that missed either on guidance or sales were pushed down, but not to the degree we saw in the first quarter. The increase in earnings has taken the market (SP 500) trailing P/E ratio down from very expensive 24.3 to modestly expensive 22.6. Sentiment remains constructive with investors mildly positive, but below average bullishness for stocks’ outlook over the next 6 months.
Economic data is coming in mixed. While GDP for the second quarter (4.1%) came in at the 5th fastest pace over the past 9 years, a large portion of this can be attributed to increased govt spending and the ‘pull-forward’ effect the Trade War tariffs have had on areas affected by increased taxes. Adjusting GDP for these areas to average still gives a GDP read in the upper 2% range which indicates growth in the second quarter was strong. The last previous 4% reads were followed by sequentially lower GDP prints over the following year however.
Real wages have stagnated year over year as inflation has increased its pace. Wages climbed 2.9% while inflation is running at 2.9% year over year. Wages had been the feared cause of inflation arising from Tax Reform stimulus. The 70% climb in oil prices, along with healthcare and housing costs and tariffs/taxes being passed along to consumers are the actual drivers over the past 12 months.
As I referred to in my January Observations and Outlook, the US Dollar was destined to climb in 2018 after an incessant decline throughout 2017 (despite many factors that should have supported the greenback). In January large traders were certain the US Dollar would continue to fall, and European and Emerging stock markets would do at least as well as US stocks. Now seven months later, indeed the US Dollar has climbed dramatically while most stock markets outside the US are negative year to date. The strong dollar has also taken its toll on precious and base metals. Given the price declines abroad (and attendant airtime and print space) and US Dollar rapid increase, pundits are talking about ‘how bad can it get’, and reasons why the US Dollar will continue to strengthen, it may be time to again take the contrarian side of the dollar argument.
Valuations in emerging markets look much more attractive at lower prices, and no one seems to own gold anymore. Vanguard recently shuttered one of its metals and mining mutual funds. The price you pay for an asset has a tremendous impact on the return one sees, and currently prices are low.
The Wall Street Journal had a very good article detailing one of the root causes of the February decline. A classic ‘tail-wagging-the dog’ story about derivatives and how they can impact other markets that are seemingly unrelated. While the outlook for global equities informs the level of the VIX, we have just seen an incident where forced trades of VIX futures impacted futures prices of equity markets. Its as though the cost of insuring against market declines went up so much that it caused the event it was insuring against.
Even with that being known, the impact to market sentiment has been dramatic. Most sentiment indices went from extremely optimistic to extreme fear in a matter of days. This change in attitude by market participants may have a lasting impact. A rapid decline like we saw in February will reduce optimism and confidence (which underpin a bull market rise), and increase fear and pessimism, which are the hallmarks of a bear market. Short term indicators turned very negative and now are more neutral, but longer-term sentiment indicators will take a longer decline to move negative.
Often the end of a bull market is marked by a rise in volatility, with equity prices falling 5-10%, then climbing back up only to get knocked down again, until finally prices cease climbing back up. This can take several weeks or months. We can see this in the market tops in 2000 and 2007. This may be occurring now. Many of the market commentary I follows the approximate theme of ‘markets likely to test the 200-day moving average’. This is the level the February decline found support. This would be about 7% below current prices, and have the makings of a completed correction, finding support once and then retesting.
Since the market highs in late January the major stock indices fell 12%, then gained 6-10% depending on the index. Since that bottom and top; markets moved down about 4.5%, then again up into yesterday (3/13/2018) gaining 4% to 7%. Tech shares and small caps have outperformed large cap along the way, rising more, but falling the same during this series. Recognizing the size of these moves and the time frame can help manage one’s risk and exposure without getting overly concerned with a 2-3% move in prices. But if one is not aware of how the 3% moves are part of the larger moves, one might wait through a series of small declines and find themselves uncomfortable just as a decline is ending—contemplating selling at lower prices as opposed to looking to buy at lower prices. Hedging is a process to dampen the markets impact on a portfolio in the short term while looking for larger longer-term trend turning points. The high in January and current decline and bounce are likely a turning point over the longer term and in the near term provide investors with parameters to determine if the bull trend is still intact.
Over the past week, the Dow fell by 4%, more than halving its ytd gains through Friday 1/19 (all time high). Bonds continued the decline started in mid-December, bringing losses during the current ‘bond rout’ to -5.7% year to date. That is a one week decline in the Dow of 4% and a four-week decline in long-bond prices of 5.7%. Balanced investors have seen stocks gain and bonds lose, putting most investors (moderately conservative to moderately aggressive) at a mild gain or loss so far this year. Generally, diversification across asset classes reduces volatility when bonds go up, stocks generally are weaker and vice versa. When the classes move together differentiation across risk profiles diminishes. Stocks remain in a strong uptrend and given the substantial gains over the past few months, equity centric investors should be able to take this in stride (or they shouldn’t be equity-centric) as 4% is a small blip in a strong multi-quarter uptrend awash in investor optimism, all-time low cash levels, all-time high exposure to stocks and financial assets and expectations of higher wages, earnings and GDP growth. In this light, a rebound, or ‘buy the dip’ would not be surprising. The new feature though is that volatility has returned.
The ‘bond rout spilling into equities’ explaination has to do with relative attractiveness. If rates keep rising, bond prices are hurt, while becoming more attractive (due to higher yields) to equity investors, putting pressure on equity prices. At some point, earning safe interest attracts enough investors from stocks to weaken stock prices. The S&P 500 dividend yield is now 1.8%, similar to what can be found offered on 18 month CD.
Rate have climbed due to rising inflation expectations. Inflation is expected to, finally, exceed the 2% goal set by the Federal Reserve ‘in the coming months’. Current thinking is that a tight labor market is pushing AHE (average hourly earnings, +2.9% Jan ’18 vs Jan ’17), combined with more take home pay (via tax reform), will result in more spending from consumers and investment from business. This will take time but markets have already priced it all in. Just like the stock market has priced in exceptional earnings growth to match its exceptional valuations. The chart below shows us that we’ve been in a tightening labor market for years without being able to hold above 2.0% inflation but briefly.
Given the new feedback loop between stocks and bonds, perhaps we shouldn’t be so excited about inflation, even if its ‘good’. On the bright side, the past few years has seen 3.25% as a top in 30yr bond yields and perhaps a decline in rates near term may help both bond holders and stock investors alike.
Small Cap (Russell 2000) 2.46%/4.99% Emerging Mkts 6.27%/18.43% High Yld Bonds 1.37%/15.3%
US Aggregate Bond 1.45%/2.27% US Treasury 20+Yr 4.18%/5.66% DJ/UBS Commodity -3%/-5.26%
2017 and its second quarter continue to be kind to financial assets, with both stocks, bonds and gold all climbing year to date. European and Emerging Market equities have been the strongest this year, rising smartly after falling by 10% during the second half of 2016. Emerging Market equity funds are back to a price area that stretches back to 2009!
Bonds continue to vacillate in an upward trend since mid-December. The commodity index is down primarily due to oil, as agriculture and base metals are essentially flat on the year after a recent climb.
Correlations between stocks and bonds have increased recently, with equities being flat over the past 6 weeks as bond prices have declined over the last two weeks. While this phenomenon is negative for investors, equities appear to remain well inside their uptrend while bonds (and gold) appear to be near medium-term support levels. We may see both stocks, bonds, and gold again climb concurrently reflecting a continuation of the year to date behavior.
What has been driving stock prices? Growing earnings, low interest rates, lack of inflation, and ‘moderate’ GDP growth are the most common reasons to explain how prices have gotten to these levels. Earnings have been on the rise since the end of the ‘earnings recession’ that lasted from June 2014 through March 2016. After a decline of some 14% we’re now growing again, even robustly, given the low base from the previous year. Earnings are still one or two quarters away from hitting new all-time highs, yet the S&P500 is roughly 20% higher than in early 2015. The chart below gives us a visual of what prices rising faster than earnings looks like. Anytime the ratio is moving up indicates prices climbing faster than earnings.
By this metric (and there are many others) stocks are valued at a level only exceeded by the roaring ‘20s and the dot-com era. Can earnings continue to grow to support valuations? The continued lack of wage growth and continued generationally low labor participation rate are headwinds to growth in consumer spending. Consumer credit growth has slowed dramatically over the past six months and without wage or credit growth it’s difficult to see how the consumer will spend more to support ‘moderate’ GDP growth. Low interest rates, or the comparison of low rates to dividend and earnings yield have provided much support over the past several years to the reasoning behind bidding up stocks faster than their earnings growth.
Interest rates bottomed one year ago at 1.3% (10-year treasury) and then ran up to 2.6%, mid-range since 2010 and the upper range of rates since late 2013. The jury is out still on whether this marks the end of the bond bull market that has lasted since 1981. The problem is that if consumers and businesses must increase their interest expense, there is that much less left to expand their consumption and investment. Low rates had been a key enabler of more borrowing, leading to more consumption, and higher profits. Now, in some areas, analysts are saying that higher rates are ALSO good for stocks because it represents growth expectations. Frankly we’ve been ‘expecting’ growth now for several years, and the only positive representation of growth (GDP) we have seen is due to a willful under-reporting of inflation. Gains in expenses in housing, healthcare, and education have far outstripped the general inflation rate. At the same time, official statisticians tell us our TVs, cell phones, and other tech devices are far cheaper, because we ‘get more’ for our money. This is called hedonic adjustments. Look this up and you will understand why one’s personal experience with the cost of living doesn’t mesh with the official inflation statistics.
It seems the main reasons we are given for buoyant stock prices appear tapped out or stretched. The thing is, it’s been like this for a few years now. So then, what really is driving prices? Some of it has to do with FOMO, Fear Of Missing Out. No one wants to get left behind as prices rise, even if said prices already appear expensive. As fundamentals have deteriorated over the past few years what is causing or who could be that marginal buyer who always seems to have more money to put towards financial assets? Perhaps this chart has something to do with it.
As central banks have purchased outstanding bonds (and equities in the cases of Japan, Switzerland and Israel among others) the cash or liquidity provided has found its way back into the equity markets. Additional effects have been to put a bid under bonds, increasing prices and lowering rates. What many investors in the U.S. don’t realize is that the European and Japanese central banks continue to this day putting approximately $400 billion per month into the financial markets. If this is the true reason behind stock and bond price levels today, any cessation, slowing or even anticipation of slowing will likely have negative effects on asset prices. The chart below shows where the U.S. Fed ended its QE efforts while Japan and Europe picked up all the slack and then some. The astute observer can see where the Fed tapered, while the ECB was not adding liquidity, from 2014 to 2015. From mid-2014 to early 2016, the Vanguard FTSE Europe ETF dropped by 29%.
Beyond central bank liquidity creation there is also the concept of growth in the private sector. Here too we see that a phenomenal amount of debt must be created to sustain growth. New debt creation in China dwarfs the rest of the world. China has put up high growth numbers the past several years, more than 7% annually.
Going forward it will be crucial to watch for central banks’ behavior as to ending current ‘QE’ policies. Japan is still committed to a 0% 10yr bond rate, yet the ECB has begun to state that its bond buying won’t last forever, and is likely to slow by mid-2018. The U.S. Fed has indicated continued tightening via rate hikes (likely one more this year) and to begin to let ‘roll off’ maturing bonds. The roll-off will take liquidity from the markets. It will start small and gradually increase in 2019 and thereafter. These cessation tactics are done under the current understanding that financial conditions are ‘easy’. Put another way, the banks will start to slow new liquidity and then drain liquidity as long as financial conditions, which include stock market levels, don’t get to difficult. What exactly is the Fed’s downside tolerance is unknown. What is knowable, is that the decision-making process takes months to be put into effect and by that time, markets could move down and growth could halt.
Near Term vs Long Term
The concepts of credit creation and central bank balance sheets and their respective monetary policies are will have impacts on asset prices over the longer term. Year over year earnings growth forecasts, specific companies’ ‘beats’ or ‘misses’ and monthly data on inflation, job growth, and wages all have short term impacts on the stock market. Currently, earnings are expected to grow robustly, official inflation is subdued and official unemployment are all in the “very good” range. Combine that with the Fear Of Missing Out concept and that should help keep the markets up and even higher for a while longer. The problem is that simply because we want markets to move higher doesn’t mean they will. At some point paying 30x earnings will seem too expensive and the markets will lose some marginal buyers and some will become sellers, for whatever reason. Based on current valuation metrics and the business cycle, we know that equity returns over the next several years will be very low. If rates go up, and/or credit (the ability to pay) worsens for individuals and businesses bond funds will likely suffer as well. Over the long term, avoiding large losses or drawdowns, even while lagging the market on the upside, can have a dramatic positive impact over a full market cycle.
What Can Be Done
If one suspects returns will be lackluster, and prices volatile, should one endure it? The solution is at once simple and difficult at the same time given our cultural of equity ownership and the media’s constant focus on one asset class: equities.
Diversifying amongst the other 6 asset classes is a start. Most advice revolves around two classes, stocks and bonds. If one truly wants to buy low and sell high, one must identify the other areas that are “low”, increase exposure there, and reduce exposure to “high” asset classes. Not only does this smooth out volatility but can increase long term returns. Given the outlook for more volatility in stock and bond prices; very low prices (historically and relative to other assets) in precious metals, agriculture and oil; there should be many opportunities to take advantage of short term swings to benefit and move some ‘eggs’ from the equity side into other, non- and lower-correlated asset classes that are currently much lower in price.
Easier said than done, yes. This is exactly why investors should seek out Investment Advisors willing to do this difficult work and that have a strategy to deal with changing markets. For more information on how I am doing this for my clients, please contact me.